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Definition :

    • Hypertension is one of the common complications among the advancing age group that is mild to severe in a condition that sometimes leads to vital complications.

    • Hypertension is defined by WHO as raised blood pressure above 140/90 mm of Hg.

    • It is considered severe when blood pressure exceeds 180/120 mm Hg.

    • It often has no symptoms but can cause risk in health conditions such as heart disease and stroke.

    • It is much more complicated when the patient is associated with any other serious complication.

    • The patient in the initial stage can be cured by changing the lifestyle and also food habits that decrease the risk of hypertension.

UNDERSTANDING THE BLOOD PRESSURE :

    • The blood travels all over the body from the heart to distal fine capillaries and again to the same.

    • There is a well-established network of blood vessels varying in size from the larger aorta to the fine capillary vessels.

    • The heart is a pumping organ that pumps blood throughout the body and receives the same.

    • The blood vessels are elastic to bear stress created by the flowing blood.

    • Take a hollow rubber tube in which some liquids flow.

    • If the volume of liquid flow in the rubber tube is left constant and the tube size is from large to small, the one with a larger hollow space will have free space for flowing.

    • In the smaller tube, the same volume flows with high pressure creating a lateral extension of the rubber tube.

    • Moreoevr, the pressure increases in the vessel when the larger vessels become smaller in range due to any deposition or stenosis.

HOW HYPERTENSION AFFECTS THE HEALTH?

    • High blood pressure could be an adverse effect of medications for other clinical conditions.

    • Its presence is a serious condition and also can be a warning sign.

    • As a primary cause, it can lead the patient to a high risk of heart disease and stroke.

    • If the patient is diagnosed with hypertension, it is better to manage it before it worsens.

    • Hypertension can be primary and secondary.

    • Primary hypertension develops idiopathically.

    • It progresses with aging and can be sudden in onset.

Secondary hypertension – Etiology :

    • Firstly, Renal problems

    • Drug induced hypertension

    • Adrenal gland tumors

    • Cocaine and other illicit drugs

    • Thyroid issues

    • Sleep apnoea

    • And also congenital defects in blood vessels

DOES THIS HAVE SERIOUS RISK FACTORS?

    • This should be considered for any instant to have a risk factor to be developed.

    • Identifying the risk factors helps treat the condition and reduce high blood pressure.

    • Some of the risk factors are modifiable and also non-modifiable.

    • The modifiable factors are cessation of smoking, and alcohol consumption, reducing the cholesterol level in your blood, reducing the body weight by doing exercise, and having a good diet plan.

    • The non-modifiable factors are age, male sex, hereditary issues, and gene mutations.

    • One of the most common risk factors for people with hypertension is a sedentary lifestyle which leads to a high risk of developing atherosclerosis.

    • Moreover the other most common factor is obesity because extra weight increases the demand on your circulatory system.

Does this have serious complications?

    • This should be considered for any instant to have a risk factor to be developed.

    • Identifying the risk factors helps treat the condition and reduce high blood pressure.

    • Some of the risk factors are modifiable and also non-modifiable.

    • The modifiable factors are cessation of smoking, and alcohol consumption, reducing the cholesterol level in your blood, reducing the body weight by doing exercise, and having a good diet plan.

    • The non-modifiable factors are age, male sex, hereditary issues, and gene mutations.

    • One of the most common risk factors for people with hypertension is a sedentary lifestyle which leads to a high risk of developing atherosclerosis.

    • Moreover the other most common factor is obesity because extra weight increases the demand on your circulatory system.

Does hypertension have stages?

    • The numbers are given by The American Heart Association for the staging of hypertension.

    • Pre-hypertensive stage – systolic pressure of 120-129 mm of Hg and a diastolic pressure of less than 80 can be treated by themselves.

    • The risk of getting into stage 1 can be reduced by following healthy food habits and having a healthier lifestyle.

    • Stage 1 hypertension – systolic pressure of 130-139 mm of Hg and a diastolic pressure of 80-89 leads to arising of health issues through which the blood vessel complication starts.

    • This needs medical attention to prevent the furthermore complications of the blood vessels.

    • Stage 2 hypertension – systolic pressure of 140 mm of Hg or higher and a diastolic pressure of 90 mm of Hg or more.

    • This leads to a high-velocity flow of blood in the narrowed vessels that causes rupture of the internal vessel wall and the platelet deposition on the ruptured area that further restrict the wall.

    • The patient in this stage should be more cautious because anytime crisis may happen.

    • A patient in a state of Hypertensive crisis has a systolic pressure of more than 180 mm of Hg and a diastolic pressure of more than 120 mm of Hg should be taken to immediate consultation with a doctor because vital organ damages are more prone to appear if immediate treatment is not given.

  • We might lose the patient due to internal bleeding at any place due to severe rupture at narrowed part of a blood vessel.

Symptoms :

    • Flushing

    • Fainting

    • Dizziness

    • Shortness of breath

    • Headaches

    • Chest pain

    • Changes in vision

    • Hematuria

    • And also Epistaxis

Treatment :

    • A patient diagnosed with hypertension will be advised to change their lifestyle and food habits.

    • If this does not help the patient, then anti-hypertensive drugs are prescribed.

    • This is to bring down the high blood pressure to a normal state.

Prevention :

    • Fruits and vegetables

    • Regular exercises

    • Meditation and yoga

    • Avoiding fatty foods

  • And also to stop smoking and alcohol consumption