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Inguinal canal

  • Inguinal canal is an oblique muscular passage in the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall.
  • Moreover, through the inguinal canal passes the Spermatic cord in males and Round ligament of uterus in females.
LENGTH AND DIRECTION:
  • Lenght: 4cm
  • Direction: Directed downwards,Forwards and medially.
EXTENSION:
  • From Deep inguinal ring to superficial inguinal ring.
DEEP INGUINAL RING SUPERFICIAL INGUINAL RING
Opening is oval in shape. Opening is triangular in shape.
Situated in the Fascia transversalis. Situated in the External oblique Aponeurosis.
Moreover, located half an inch above the midinguinal point. Moreover, Located above and lateral tp the Pubic crest.

 

  • The opening of the Superfcial inguinal ring is triangular in shape and hence the opening is bounded by two margins and one base.They are,
    • Upper/Medial margin,
    • Lower/Lateral margin and then
    • The base.
  • Further, these upper and lower margins are referred to as Crura which beyond the apex of the Superficial inguinal ring are united by the intercrural fibres.
 
BOUNDARIES:

ANTERIOR WALL:

Whole extent:

a) Skin
b) superficial Fascia and then
c) External oblique Aponeurosis.

Lateral 1/3rds:

a) Internal oblique abdominis muscle.

POSTERIOR WALL:

Whole extent:

a) Fascia transversalis.
b) Extraperitoneal connective tissue and then
c) Pareital peritoneum.

Medial 2/3rds:

a) Conjoint tendon and then
b) At its medial end by reflected part of inguinal ligament.

ROOF:

  • Arched fibres of Transversus abdominis & Internal oblique abdominis.

FLOOR:

  • Grooved upper surface of the Inguinal ligament.

Structures through inguinal canal

 
STRUCTURES PASSING THROUGH THE INGUINAL CANAL:

a) Spermatic cord in Males.
b) Round ligament of uterus in females and then
c) The ilioinginal nerve

  • Spermatic cord in males and similarly, Round ligament of uterus in females, they both enter through deep inguinal ring and exit through Superficial inguinal ring.
  • In addition, Ilioinguinal nerve enters through the interval between external and internal oblique muscles and exit through superficial inguinal ring.

Layers of inguinal canal

SPERMATIC CORD:

CONSTITUENT:

Arteries:

  • Testicular artery
  • Cremasteric artery and then
  • Artery of Ductus deferens.

Nerves:

  • Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve.
  • Plexus of sympathetic nerves around artery to ductus deferences and then
  • Visceral afferent nerve fibres.

  • Pampiniform plexus of veins.
  • Ductus deferens.
  • Lymph vessels from testis and then
  • Finally remains of processus vaginalis.
COVERINGS OF THE SPERMATIC CORD:

From within outward:

1) Firstly, Internal spermatic fascia
Derived from Fascia transversalis.
Further, cover the cord in its whole extent.

2) Secondly, Cremasteric fascia
Derived from internal oblique abdominis and transversus abdominis muscle.
Further it covers the cord below the levels of these muscles.

Contents of the spermatic cord

3) Thirdly, External spermatic fascia
Derived from the external oblique abdominis and then
Further, it covers the cord below the Superficial inguinal ring.

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